The Edison Chen photo scandal involved the illegal distribution over the Internet of intimate and private photographs of Hong Kong actor Edison Chen with various women, including actresses Gillian Chung, Bobo Chan, Rachel Ngan and Cecilia Cheung. The scandal shook the Hong Kong entertainment industry in early 2008 and received high profile media attention locally and around the world. Many local newspapers headlined the story consecutively during the first fortnight of February 2008, relegating coverage of the 2008 Chinese winter storms to secondary prominence during Chinese New Year.
The Hong Kong police enlisted the assistance of Interpol to stem the spread of the photographs. Ten people were arrested in connection with the distribution of the photographs. A computer technician was convicted of three counts of obtaining access to a computer with dishonest intent, and received a custodial sentence of eight and a half months.
The police crackdown raised questions over violations of the privacy and free speech rights of Internet users. The manner in which actors, their management, and the police handled the situation, in turn, made those arrested into heroes for some Internet users.
Chen admitted being the author and copyright owner of most of the photographs, and stated that the private photographs had been stolen and published illegally without his consent. He made a public apology, especially to the women involved, and also announced that he would "step away indefinitely" from the Hong Kong entertainment industry.
In November 2006, Chen purchased a pink PowerBook personal computer, a photograph of which he published on his blog. It may have come from eLite Multimedia, a computer shop in Hong Kong's Central district. According to the police, Chen's "Cotton-candy Mac" computer was sent in for repairs, and an estimated 1,300 intimate photographs of Chen and numerous female celebrities may have been accessed and secretly copied by one or more of the shop's employees. According to Chen, the image files were deleted before the computer was taken in for repairs.
Chen's photographs were reportedly made some time between 2003 and 2006. One close friend indicated that Chen liked to take photographs during intimate moments with his sexual partners, of whom 14 were celebrities, and privately showed these to a select group of close friends.
The first photograph, depicting Chen and Gillian Chung, was posted on the Hong Kong Discuss Forum at approximately 8:30 p.m. on 27 January 2008. Although the original post was deleted after a few hours, some visitors forwarded the image to other major forums in Hong Kong such as Uwants and HKGolden. Chung's management agency, Emperor Entertainment Group (EEG), immediately challenged its authenticity, and filed a police report.
The following day, a second explicit photograph of Chen, with another starlet, appeared on the Internet. After an emergency meeting that evening at EEG, the company declared that it would pursue the publisher of the image for this "irresponsible" and "malicious act". Gillian Chung was reportedly very distraught, had taken a leave of absence, and would not comment on the matter. Shaped by the denials, the initial media consensus was that the photographs were hoaxes. Nevertheless, the story became the headline of major local Hong Kong newspapers.
At 12:30 p.m. on 29 January, a higher resolution photograph appeared on the Internet. Journals noted the uncanny resemblance to Cecilia Cheung, especially her distinctive tattoo set. The photographs became the talk of the town, and local discussion forums became saturated. A low-resolution sequence (photos 4 to 7) of Chen with Chung appeared at 3 p.m.; a nude photograph of Cecilia Cheung appeared at 6 p.m. Journals established with known video footage that the photographs were taken inside Chen's residence. Nevertheless, Cheung's solicitors denounced the upload as a "malicious, immoral and irresponsible act".
China News Service (CNS) reported that more than 100 police officers had been sent to investigate the case, although Assistant Commissioner of Police (Crime) Vincent Wong Fook-chuen later declared that the investigating team consisted of 19 officers from the Commercial Crime Bureau. The police and photographic experts, who examined the images involving the first three female celebrities, said the photos were unlikely to have been composites.
The Hong Kong police moved on all Internet service providers to stamp out all local traces of the as yet unclassified "offensive material". The police met with more than 200 people responsible for major Hong Kong Web sites and BBS communities to urge them to delete the pictures on appearance "as they have the responsibility to stop crimes". Related discussion threads were progressively deleted. The police ordered several locally registered web sites and BBS management firms to submit information about their clients, and had retrieved the IP addresses of more than 30 Internet users who allegedly posted photographs.
After the exposure of the eighth photograph, Chen quietly left Hong Kong and flew to Boston to be with his girlfriend Vincy Yeung (楊永晴). On 4 February 2008, Chen released a 90-second video clip in English in which he apologised to those who may have been affected by the posting of photographs, without commenting on the authenticity of the photos.
On 6 February, a forum user leaked hundreds more photographs in defiance of the police. The uploader, dubbed by the public as "Kira", with reference to the protagonist in the manga "Death Note", stated he was not in Hong Kong, and promised to release a 32-minute video the next day. Two days later, three pictures of a young woman showering appeared on the Internet. The subject was rapidly identified as 18-year-old Vincy Yeung, Chen's girlfriend and niece of Albert Yeung, chairman of EEG. The police confirmed these three images were part of the batch of 1,300 photographs known to them. Having said there were only six participants, the police explained the appearance of a seventh, saying that her photographs had been erroneously grouped with one of the other females.
Gillian Chung was the first starlet to make a public appearance. After greeting fans at a New Year celebration on 11 February 2008, she delivered a brief statement to the press in which she apologised for the hurt caused to those around her by her silliness and naivety, saying that she "had now grown up". Emperor sought closure by stating that neither it nor any of its artists would be making any further statement about the incident. The press conference drew mixed response from the media and the public – some praised her courage in facing the public while others complained of her insincerity and her refusal to face the issue squarely. An Apple Daily commentary was particularly scathing about the hypocrisy of Chung and of her management company for only obliquely hinting at her "licentiousness". On 14 February, two new nude photographs surfaced. One photograph featured an unidentified woman fellating Chen, and another showed Rachel Ngan lying on a bed.
Chen returned to Hong Kong on 21 February, and held a press conference during which he asked for forgiveness and announced his departure from the Hong Kong entertainment industry "indefinitely". Chen confirmed that the photographs belonged to him and were private, and stated that they were obtained without his consent and then made public. His lawyer emphasised that reproduction whether in whole or in part would constitute copyright infringement.
On 26 February, as Chen entered his sixth consecutive day of police questioning, Sing Tao Daily revealed that a cache of computer disks and other storage devices containing in excess of 10,000 images were found from the search of Chen's residence. Police leaked news that five "new" celebrities had been identified by police, who gave only cryptic descriptions. Investigations were apparently hampered by Chen's caution, and by the lack of cooperation of the "new" female victims: some had left town, and one had already publicly denied her involvement. While the police suspected hidden motives, Chen denied that he had been blackmailed.
 StatisticsThis table breaks down the photographs by subject:
|Person Involved||Names per source||Photo count as of|
10 Feb 2008
|Cecilia Cheung Pak-chi||张栢芝||143|
|Bobo Chan Man-woon||陈文媛||116|
|Gillian Chung Yan-tung||钟欣桐||104|
|Candice Chan Si-wai||陈思慧||48|
|Mandy Chen Yu-ju||陈育嬬||40|
|Rachel Ngan Wing-sze||颜颖思||13|
|Vincy Yeung Wing-ching||杨永晴||3|
Police Actions - Hong Kong
On 31 January 2008, an unemployed man identified as 29-year-old Chung Yik-tin (鍾亦天) was arrested for allegedly uploading one image; 12 pictures were found on his computer. The next day he was arraigned but denied bail because he was suspected of blackmailing the actor and actresses. The case would reconvene eight weeks later, and Chung Yik-tin was destined to spend Chinese New Year in detention. After investigating the connection between the suspect and artists, the police were satisfied that blackmail was not involved. Following the furore at the police that the photograph allegedly posted by Chung was later classified as "indecent", Chung was unconditionally released from detention on 15 February, and charges against him were dropped.
On 2 February, police arrested four men and two women in connection with the distribution of the photographs. Of the six, three men and a woman were released on HK$20,000 bail and ordered to report back to the police in eight weeks. The police revealed that during 2007, Edison Chen brought his computer to a shop for repairs. Employees who discovered over 1,300 intimate photographs may have secretly copied these files.
On 4 February, a 29-year-old man became the eighth person to be detained in connection with the Internet posting of nude photos. On the same day, 23-year-old Sze Ho-Chun (史可雋) was arrested and charged with "dishonest use of computers with criminal intent", which has a maximum penalty of five years imprisonment. The man appeared in Eastern Court on 5 February, where he denied the charge and was released on $50,000 bail. The case was adjourned to 22 February.
Assistant Commissioner Wong said the source of the pictures had been traced, but he would not confirm reports stating that they had been taken from Chen's computer. He added that the authenticity of the photographs was no longer in question. Wong also said of the six women found in the photographs, four were local celebrities and two were unknown to the police. None of the women were named. Wong was certain that no overseas artists were involved. He said that it was not a crime to transfer the pictures to friends, but those who had posted the images to Internet web pages could be in breach of the Hong Kong law. His statement has prompted some people to solicit for or send the picture files to their "friends" en masse by email.
On 5 February, as another of the suspects was released on $50,000 bail, six more related photographs surfaced on the Internet. In the early hours on Chinese New Year's Eve, several hundred more photographs appeared on the Internet; there were two new faces.
The police arrested a tenth person in connection with the case on 10 February. Kwok Chun-wai, a 24-year-old logistics clerk, was charged with distribution of pornography. He had allegedly posted the link to a local discussion forum after uploading a compressed file containing over a hundred images to a site in Cyprus. Kwok was released on $10,000 bail and was required to report to the police three times a week. He entered a guilty plea to three counts of publishing an obscene article in July. On 24 July 2008, he was sentenced to two months in prison, suspended for two years.
Web sites on the mainland are usually more sensitive to political issues than to pornography, and for several weeks major sites such as Baidu permitted the images to be disseminated. During this time, photographs were also posted on the popular mainland China chat room, Tianya Club, and had been viewed nearly 20 million times a day. Around 20 February however, mainland sites took action to prevent access to the photos.
A crackdown began in mainland China on the manufacturing, selling and spreading the CD-ROMs of the celebrity photos, which sold "like hotcakes". Police arrested 10 people suspected of the production in Shenzhen. Police in Beijing announced on 21 February that it would act to stop the circulation of the photographs. Officials declared that showing the photos to friends or posting them on blogs or online forums, even without profit motive, could be punishable by detention for up to 15 days; transmission of more than 200 of the photos as a package on the internet would be met with criminal prosecution.
 TaiwanA Taiwanese man aged 24, Huang Wei-lun, was arrested in Taipei County on suspicion of posting the explicit photos and videos in his blog and instructing net surfers how to download the images. Police in Kaohsiung warned of the two-year penalty for selling pornographic CDs, and raided shops and arcades where discs of Edison Chen's photographs have been selling slowly, for TWD100. One observer remarked that young people did not buy discs as they can get the photographs easily from the internet.
 Legal issues
 Freedom of speechOn 2 February, Commissioner of Police Tang King Shing warned that anyone with the pictures on their computer could be in breach of the law, even if there was no record of distribution. This led to an immediate objection by lawmaker "Long Hair" Leung Kwok-hung, who led a protest of about two dozen people outside police headquarters in Wan Chai. They accused the police of sowing confusion and creating an atmosphere of "white terror" among netizens. Leung urged Commissioner Tang to clarify whether merely keeping the pictures violated the law. Some opinions disagree on distributing the photos.
 Selective application of the lawThe police's selectiveness in this case, as compared with previous cases of pornography distribution on the Internet, was also the focus of public attention. Regina Ip said that police would commonly apply the law selectively, citing the difficulty of taking action against every person who had overstayed in Hong Kong. Similarly, the local Chairman of the Internet Society said that it would not be practical for the police to ticket every traffic offender.
The denial of bail for Chung Yik-tin sparked controversy over the subjective application of the law. Legislator Ronny Tong accused the police of humiliating a suspect by their excessively hasty actions.
Commentary in the newspaper Ming Pao also remarked on the widespread outrage about the perceived selective application of legal principles – that a person charged with an apparently minor offense being denied bail whilst two others, unnamed, with allegedly heavier involvement in the spread of the photographs were allowed out on bail. A commentary in Apple Daily decried the "clear intimidation of netizens" by the police, and referred to the "hypocrisy in law enforcement" for arresting people without bringing the alleged main source and victim (Chen) for interrogation.
 Definition of "obscenity"While publishing an "obscene" (淫褻) article carries a maximum sentence of 3 years, an "indecent" (不雅) article only carries a maximum sentence of 12 months. Ming Pao revealed on 14 February that it had received interim classification from the Obscene Articles Tribunal (OAT) relating to five photographs it had submitted for opinion. Three of these photographs were classified as "indecent" while two were considered "obscene". The only photograph which was in circulation on 27 January, allegedly posted by Chung Yik-tin, was "indecent". Thus, the journal raised the question that Chung may have been charged with a wrong offense. Also, the law applies only after OAT's classification. Since the police arrested and charged Chung before classification, some viewed the arrest as unlawful. An Assistant Professor at the University of Hong Kong questioned whether an amended charge of "Publishing an Indecent Article" applied to photographs uploaded onto the Internet.
The news of the scandal received international media attention, notably on CNN, the Wall Street Journal, the New York Times, The Economist, MSNBC, the BBC, The Guardian, Le Figaro, Le Monde and Der Spiegel.
On 3 February, a small group led by Leung Kwok-hung protested the abuse of power by the police. One week later, there was a larger protest demonstrated against alleged "discriminatory" law enforcement against Internet users. The involvement of local celebrities led to complaints that the wave of arrests were indicative of a legal double standard: protesters claimed that the police failed to investigate other cases of nude photos being published without their subject's permission. Approximately 300 Internet users marched from Victoria Park to police headquarters in Wan Chai. They petitioned the police to apologize publicly, to release Chung Yik-tin, to stop "an abuse of power", and also demanded the resignation of Commissioner Tang. In the wake of the scandal, citizens also became more concerned about the integrity of the law. There was an increased resentment towards the Hong Kong Police following some highly publicised incidents of suspected police bias: citizens cited motoring incidents of Chief Inspector Cindy Kong and businessman Peter Lam in an attempt to show that, in Hong Kong, some were clearly more equal than others.
The police were widely criticised for their handling of the case: in a survey published by the SCMP, some 48 percent of people surveyed believed the police had created unnecessary fear among the Internet community, and a similar percentage were dissatisfied with the police handling of the case. However, Assistant Commissioner Wong insisted that they had "not departed from normal practices" and had "acted correctly under the laws".
On 5 February 2008, Chen was pulled from the upcoming Stephen Fung movie Jump as a result of the scandal. On 10 February 2008, it was reported that credit card company Manhattan Titanium has withdrawn all advertisements featuring Chen. He was also filming a minor role as a sharp-dressed thug in The Dark Knight, but his scene was cut, and his very brief cameo as a receptionist was shown instead. The LA Times reported that Pepsi China, Standard Chartered Bank, Samsung, Levi's and the Hong Kong Metro, had dropped or declined to renew ad campaigns involving Chen.
Upon his return to Hong Kong on 21 February, a hundred police officers were present throughout the press conference at the HITEC centre, and some citizens complained about the waste of manpower. The police argued that their strong presence was essential to maintain public order due to the great public and media interest in the case. The triads reportedly offered a HK$500,000 reward to anybody who hacked off Chen's hand. This contributed to fears for Chen's safety upon his return, and heavy police protection.
 Gillian ChungWhile Emperor declared that Gillian Chung was on sick leave, fellow Twins member Charlene Choi twice publicly denied rumours of suicide attempts by Chung — once was during the promotion of the film Kung Fu Dunk. Hong Kong Disneyland Resort dropped the use of a Twins music video for the celebration of the Chinese New Year because of Chung's involvement in the controversy. A new video featuring Taiwanese boyband Fahrenheit was selected as a replacement. Preparations for the Twins concerts in Hong Kong originally scheduled for 12–16 April postponed until September.
Chung's appearance at a charity programme on 17 February met with around 2,100 complaints to the Broadcasting Authority, 373 to TVB, and 202 to the Television and Entertainment Licensing Authority (TELA). On 21 February the Broadcasting Authority decided that the complaints were outside its jurisdiction to consider, and passed all the correspondence received to TVB.
On 26 February 2008, the South China Morning Post, citing the Dalian Evening News, reported that Chung and Nicholas Tse (husband of Cecilia Cheung) would no longer perform at the Beijing Olympics opening ceremony. Artistic Director, Zhang Yimou, dropped them for having been tainted by the nude photos scandal. Their management had no comment. Nicholas Tse did appear at the closing ceremony, singing on stage alongside Jackie Chan, Emil Chau, Andy Lau, and others.
Twins announced its "temporary" dissolution in late June 2008, four months after Gillian was caught up in the scandal. Charlene said in July 2008 she was highly optimistic that they will reunite "some day". It was reported that Chung, under contract with Emperor Entertainment Group in 2008, did not receive any salary for the duration of the scandal, and even struggled to pay rent.
 Other female stars who have worked with ChenJolin Tsai and Elva Hsiao have collaborated with Chen on various projects and are rumoured love interests of Chen. Some images of a Tsai lookalike have previously appeared. In an effort to contain the damage to their reputations, both issued statements through their agents that they had "never been involved with Chen". They each issued "rewards" of TWD100 million defying anyone to come forward with legally authenticated photographs, and also threatened to seek full redress from any parties for "smears". Tsai urged the Hong Kong Police to publish a list of the persons involved, so that "innocents can be spared".
 MediaThe scandal has shocked the general public and ignited debate about sexual morality. The blanket coverage of the local press, their reporting style, and the appearance of photographs has also been met with public complaints to TELA. TELA suspected that at least two journals violated the Obscene Articles Ordinance, and sent copies of issue #936 of Next Magazine and issue #531 of the Oriental Sunday magazine to the OAT for classification. The Tribunal returned an interim classification of "Class I", meaning the magazines were "neither obscene nor indecent", and TELA demanded a full public hearing to review its decision. The OAT, the method of selecting its adjudicators, and the Obscene Articles Ordinance, came under fire. It reportedly classified Michelangelo's "David" as "indecent" by adhering rigidly to a definition.
The images reached China mostly through an image-sharing service on Baidu (Tieba). Beijing Network News Council (BNNC) held a meeting on 18 February to discuss the "romantic pictures", and criticised Baidu for spreading the pictures. Other web sites that actively discouraged the photo distribution, namely Sohu, Sina and Netease, were praised by BNCC.
 Sze Ho-chun trial
 Chen's hearingAlthough Chen agreed to cooperate with the authorities, he refused to return to Hong Kong to give evidence in the trial. A team of four lawyers and a magistrate were thus flown out to Vancouver, Canada for a hearing beginning on 23 February 2009 at taxpayers' expense. Legislator Ronny Tong questioned the "extravagancy" of this hearing, and suggested there may be an easier and cheaper way to collect Chen's evidence.
During the hearing, which is governed by Hong Kong law, and is presided over by Supreme Court of British Columbia Justice Elaine Adair, with Hong Kong's Chief Magistrate Tong Man (唐文) as co-commissioner, Chen confirmed that Cecilia Cheung, Gillian Chung, Bobo Chan and Rachel Ngan were indeed involved. He testified that the photographs, taken from 2001 to 2006, were consensual, and were only shown to the women involved. He professed his "huge shock" at seeing the images on the Internet, citing that he had deleted the images before sending his computer in for repairs in summer of 2006.
Cecilia Cheung's Reaction
After Chen's statement to court, Cheung broke silence in the matter on a televised interview on iCable on 27 February. She heavily criticised Chen for shedding crocodile tears, saying that instead of calling to apologise, he had not returned calls and switched off his telephone when the incident came to light last year. She accused him of hypocrisy in a bid to win the public's forgiveness while hurting others caught up in the scandal. She said that despite the rumours circulating at the time of a rift with her husband and in-laws, they had been most supportive.
Gillian Chung's reaction
Interviewed in an episode of TVB's Be My Guest in March 2009, Chung said that Chen was her greatest love, and let him take photos of them engaging in sex because she did not want to lose him.
She reclused herself from public for more than a year following the incident and later apologised for hurting the people around her, especially to her long-time 'Twins' partner Choi. During the hiatus, she took classes in many areas which she hoped would serve her professionally. Chung said she had ruled out suicide during the ordeal, fearing that the problems would be passed onto people who cared about her if she died; she said her mother was supportive of her quitting the industry.
 Death threatOn 12 March 2009, a threatening letter containing a bullet was delivered to a Cable TV station mailbox. It is thought to have been sent from Allentown, Pennsylvania, though police did not rule out the possibility that the address was a fake. The broadcaster did not release the text of the threatening letter, written in English, but summarised the contents on its entertainment news report.
Secretary for Security Ambrose Lee said Hong Kong is governed by the rule of law and violent or intimidating activity will not be tolerated. Peter Lam former manager of Chen said that these threats violate the law, and people who break the law will be dealt with. He further added that Chen made some mistakes, but those mistakes were not worth death.
 Conviction securedComputer technician Sze Ho-chun was convicted on 13 May 2009 of three counts of obtaining access to a computer with dishonest intent, and received a custodial sentence of eight and a half months. However, there was no evidence that he uploaded the pictures to the Internet.
 See also
- ^ Patrick Frater (4 February 2008). "HK police arrest 7 more in celebrity porn scandal". Variety (Asia). http://www.varietyasiaonline.com/content/view/5426/53/. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
- ^ "網頁極速蔓延 淫照難盡剷" (in Traditional Chinese). Wen Wei Po. 1 February 2008. http://paper.wenweipo.com/2008/02/01/YO0802010004.htm. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
- ^ a b "Eight now held in Internet sex probe". The Standard. 4 February 2008. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=12&art_id=61125&sid=17431562&con_type=3. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
- ^ a b "Tech jailed for stealing sex-with-starlet photos". The Sydney Morning Herald. 13 May 2009. http://www.smh.com.au/news/technology/articles/2009/05/13/1241894033965.html.
- ^ "一哥：藏裸照供發布可拉人" (in Traditional Chinese). sina.com.hk. 3 February 2008. http://news.sina.com.hk/cgi-bin/nw/show.cgi/2/1/1/629150/1.html. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
- ^ "網民支持發照者 批警方偏袒 學者：網絡暴力作祟" (in Traditional Chinese). Phoenix TV. 1 February 2008. http://news.sina.com/oth/phoenixtv/502-104-103-108/2008-02-01/00112643396.html. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
- ^ a b Nickkita Lau (22 February 2008). "Edison bows out on sorry note". The Standard. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=12&art_id=61938&sid=17712230&con_type=5&d_str=20080222&sear_year=2008. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
- ^ "涉及淫照风波的电脑店铺 常有男艺人光顾" (in Simplified Chinese). 猫扑. 5 February 2008. http://star.ent.mop.com/8gua/exposure/2008-02-05/81398.shtml. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
- ^ "陈冠希道歉 请求大家销毁不雅照片" (in Simplified Chinese). 金羊网. 6 February 2008. http://www.ycwb.com/xkb/2008-02/06/content_1784734.htm. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
- ^ "店員炫耀淫照出事" (in Traditional Chinese). Sing Pao Daily News. 4 February 2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080216212007/http://www.singpao.com/20080204/local/945111.html. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
- ^ Agencies (4 June 2009). "Edison Chen calls sex photos youthful indiscretion". http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2009-06/04/content_8249386.htm.
- ^ "网上再现6张女艺人不雅照" (in Simplified Chinese). Qingdao News. 6 February 2008. http://www.qingdaonews.com/content/2008-02/06/content_7809564.html. Retrieved 7 February 2008. [dead link]
- ^ a b "网上再现6张女艺人不雅照" (in Simplified Chinese). China Press. 30 January 2008. http://www.chinapress.com.my/content_new.asp?dt=2008-01-31&sec=entertainment&art=0131en16.txt. Retrieved 3 March 2008.
- ^ a b Chang May Choon (2 February 2008). "Is this Cecilia?". The Electric New Paper. http://www.asiaone.com/News/Latest%2BNews/Showbiz/Story/A1Story20080205-48346.html. Retrieved 10 February 2008.
- ^ "Gillian Chung and Edison Chen 'racy photos' exposed" (in Traditional Chinese). Apple Daily. 29 January 2008.
- ^ "Edison Chen, Ah Giu, BoBo bedshots exposed" (in Traditional Chinese). The Sun. 29 January 2008.
- ^ "Hong Kong stars slam nude photos". REDNET.CN. 4 February 2008. http://english.rednet.cn/c/2008/02/04/1435856.htm. Retrieved 5 February 2008.
- ^ "Racy photos scandal". Apple Daily. 30 January 2008.
- ^ "张柏芝卷入陈冠希艳照门 网上惊现疑似裸照" (in Simplified Chinese). xinmin.cn. 30 January 2008. http://ent.xmnext.com/star/2008/01/30/1037989.html. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
- ^ a b c Lydia Chen (31 January 2008). "Alleged HK celebrity sex photos create a stir". Shanghai Daily. http://www.shanghaidaily.com/sp/article/2008/200801/20080131/article_347440.htm. Retrieved 8 February 2008.
- ^ a b c d e "(Entire front page)" (in Traditional Chinese). Sing Pao Daily News. 5 February 2008.
- ^ "So Is This Joey Yung?". The Electric New Paper. 3 February 2008. http://www.asiaone.com/Just%2BWoman/News/Celebrities/Story/A1Story20080204-48059.html. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
- ^ "Edison Chen's blog". CLOT. http://www.clotinc.com/blogs/public/edc. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
- ^ "Edison Chen 陳冠希 talks about photo scandal". YouTube. 4 February 2008. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=io9n4XwJQG0. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
- ^ a b c d "Star apologizes to six artistes in 1,300 racy Internet photos". The Standard. 5 February 2008. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=12&art_id=61190&sid=17445450&con_type=1. Retrieved 5 February 2008.
- ^ The name "Kira" is a reference to the main character in the manga Death Note, whose real identity is unknown to the public but whose continued vigilantist acts and defiance against the police were admired by certain members of the public.
- ^ "'Edison's Conquests' Sex Photos – Dozens More Leaked". batgwa.com. 7 February 2008. http://batgwa.com/story.php?id=581. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
- ^ ""Racy pictures scandal out of control – Vincy's involvement infuriates father" (艷照門”事件失控 楊永晴遭毒手楊受成大怒)" (in Traditional Chinese). Phoenix Television (via Sina.com). 8 February 2008. http://news.sina.com/oth/phoenixtv/502-104-103-108/2008-02-09/19102658661.html.
- ^ a b Damon Pang (12 February 2008). "Twins star apologizes to her fans". The Standard. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=12&art_id=61393&sid=17552751&con_type=3&d_str=20080212&sear_year=2008.
- ^ "Naive and silly old me (阿嬌：以前很天真及傻)" (in Traditional Chinese). Ming Pao. 11 February 2008. http://hk.news.yahoo.com/080211/12/2omv3.html. Retrieved 11 February 2008.
- ^ 「... 今次這件事，對我同身邊的人，都造成了好大的困擾同傷害(停頓數秒)。我承認以前係好天真同好傻，但係現在已經長大了。好多謝公司、多謝家人，及多謝朋友的眷顧及支持；今次這件事，對於社會帶來了好大的影響，我都深感抱歉，在未來日子裏，我會繼續努力工作，同積極面對我的人生。多謝傳媒的關心，以及要多謝一班對我不離不棄的fans，多謝。」
(English translation: "... This incident has caused a lot of turmoil and harm to me and people around me. I admit that I was so naive and silly in the past, but now I have grown up. I thank my company, my family and my friends for their blessing and support. This incident has caused a lot of [negative] effects to the society which I deeply regret. In the future, I will continue to work hard, and face my life positively. Thank the media for their care. Also, I want to thank my loyal fans for their relentless support. Thank you.""I was So Silly, So Naive" (in Traditional Chinese). Ming Pao. 12 February 2008. http://www.mingpaonews.com/20080212/gaa1.htm. Retrieved 12 February 2008.
- ^ "The week's press cuttings". Zona Europa. Week 2, February 2008. http://www.zonaeuropa.com/200802b.brief.htm#007.
- ^ a b "The Biggest Lesson of "Sex Photos Gate" is the Exposure of Hypocrisy". Apple Daily via Zona Europa. 12 February 2008. http://www.zonaeuropa.com/200802b.brief.htm#005. Retrieved 15 January 2008. Original article (Chinese)
- ^ "Battle resumes after 5 day respite, Black-hand toys with Big Brother (休戰五日 再發床照 疑顏穎思 – 黑手明玩一哥)" (in Traditional Chinese). The Sun Daily. 15 February 2008. http://the-sun.on.cc/channels/news/20080215/20080215022707_0000.html.
- ^ "Edison Chen statement". Sina. 22 February 2008. http://news.sina.com.hk/cgi-bin/nw/show.cgi/32/1/1/645837/1.html. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
- ^ "Edison Chen: I Took Photos, I'm Sorry, I Quit Showbiz". batgwa.com. 21 February 2008. http://batgwa.com/story.php?id=635. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- ^ a b c "Two new faces seen on new nude photos (新裸照驚見二铫女藝人)" (in Traditional Chinese). Sing Tao Daily. 27 February 2008. http://hk.news.yahoo.com/080226/60/2pism.html. Retrieved 27 February 2008.
- ^ "Indecent photo turmoil continues, twelve victims identified (不雅照事件風波不斷 相關受害女星至少12人)". Sina.com. 26 February 2008. Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080302184153/http://chinanews.sina.com/ent/2008/0226/20042567536.html. Retrieved 27 February 2008.
- ^ "Racy photos keep appearing, 460 more X-factor is increasing (阿嬌柏芝BoBo 床照不止 460張連環播淫褻升級)" (in Traditional Chinese). The Sun Daily. 10 February 2008. http://the-sun.on.cc/channels/news/20080210/20080210024013_0000.html. Retrieved 10 February 2008.
- ^ Michael Chugani (6 February 2008). ""Public Eye" -Porn pictures: the big unanswered question ...". South China Morning Post: p. A2.
- ^ a b "Suspect arrested in Internet nude photo escapade". The Standard. 1 February 2008. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=30&art_id=61047&sid=17388462&con_type=1. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
- ^ 鍾亦天發表聲明稱重獲自由感高興
- ^ "'Edison's Conquests' Sex Photos – Hundreds More Images Seized". batgwa.com. 2 February 2008. http://batgwa.com/story.php?id=568. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
- ^ "'Edison's Conquests' Sex Photos – Computer Shop Searched". batgwa.com. 3 February 2008. http://batgwa.com/story.php?id=569. Retrieved 4 February 2008.
- ^ a b "Accused bailed as more racy photos surface". The Standard. 6 February 2008. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=30&art_id=61211&sid=17457495&con_type=1. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
- ^ "Update: Edison Chen has sex pictures". The Blemish. 30 January 2008. http://theblemish.com/2008/01/edison-chen-has-sex-pictures/.
- ^ "One more arrest amidst continuing rapid spread of artistes' racy photos (艺人不雅照网络急速传播 又一网民发放被捕)". Sina.com. 12 February 2008. http://ent.sina.com.cn/s/h/2008-02-12/09251908338.shtml. Retrieved 12 February 2008.
- ^ a b Damon Pang & Nikkita Lau (13 February 2008). "Suspect granted bail as Edison's return imminent". The Standard. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=30&art_id=61433&sid=17567136&con_type=1.
- ^ "Clerk who posted sex pictures alters plea". South China Morning Post: p. C1. 4 July 2008.
- ^ Lai Ying-kit (25 July 2008). "Clerk who posted sex photos avoids jail time". South China Morning Post.
- ^ "Netizens move to mainland as discussions killed off". Oriental Daily. 1 February 2008.
- ^ "World soaks up the scandal". South China Morning Post. 22 February 2008. http://www.scmp.com/portal/site/SCMP/menuitem.2af62ecb329d3d7733492d9253a0a0a0/?vgnextoid=969edc2645c38110VgnVCM100000360a0a0aRCRD&ss=Hong+Kong&s=News. Retrieved 22 February 2008. (non-free source)
- ^ "Sex photos a hot buy in Guangzhou". China Daily , HK Edition. 22 February 2008. http://www.china.org.cn/english/government/243519.htm. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
- ^ "Sex photos sell like hot cakes in Shenzhen". South China Morning Post. 21 February 2008. http://www.scmp.com/portal/site/SCMP/menuitem.2af62ecb329d3d7733492d9253a0a0a0/?vgnextoid=466a077be2738110VgnVCM100000360a0a0aRCRD&ss=Hong+Kong&s=News. Retrieved 21 February 2008. (non-free)
- ^ "China police apprehend 10 people over HK nude celebrity photos". Xinhua. 20 February 2008. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-02/20/content_7636527.htm. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- ^ "Beijing draws line as Taiwanese crack down". The Standard. 22 February 2008. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=13&art_id=61919&sid=17710300&con_type=1&d_str=20080222&sear_year=2008. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
- ^ "Taiwan man nabbed over HK celebrity nude photos". Google news. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5gXyLYfldmD2Fu41RmVQPw0ltAbXg. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- ^ "DVD店賣陳冠希淫照光碟 生意差僅售出7張" (in Traditional Chinese). ET Today. 24 February 2008. http://www.ettoday.com/2008/02/24/138-2235620.htm. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
- ^ "Longhair protests the Hong Kong Police Department for abusing the power to arrest 4 Hong Kong residents for forwarding the photos (抗議警方濫捕4名網民!)" (in Traditional Chinese "混淆視聽轉、轉移視線，製造網上恐怖氣氛"). Leung Kwok Hung. 3 February 2008. http://longhair.hk/. Retrieved 5 February 2008.
- ^ 演藝協會：港人的悲哀
- ^ 明光社就網上藝人情慾照發出十點聲明- 基督日報
- ^ "星期六問責: 鄧竟成訪問" (in Traditional Chinese). Radio Television Hong Kong. 3 February 2008. http://www.rthk.org.hk/rthk/radio1/accountability/20080202.html.
- ^ February 2008/1618493487.html "香港警方稱藏淫照也有罪 明星獲偏袒引爭議" (in Chinese). Sina Beijing. 3 February 2008. http://news.sina.com/sinacn/202-000-103-107/3 February 2008/1618493487.html.
- ^ a b "Lam treats scandal with kid gloves". The Standard. 15 February 2008. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=11&art_id=61583&sid=17606869&con_type=1&d_str=20080215&sear_year=2008.
- ^ a b Bradsher, Keith (13 February 2008). "Internet Sex Video Case Stirs Free-Speech Issues in Hong Kong". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/13/business/worldbusiness/13internet.html?_r=1&em&ex=1203051600&en=5e5d33c170b9b534&ei=5087%0A&oref=slogin. Retrieved 16 February 2008.
- ^ a b "Five photos assessed: 3 "indecent", 2 "obscene" (5裸照評級3 不雅2淫褻" (in Traditional Chinese). Ming Pao. 14 February 2008. http://www.mingpaonews.com/20080214/gaa1.htm.
- ^ "Legal bias in stars' nude photo incident (藝人裸照案 執法司法都有偏差)" (in Traditional Chinese). Ming Pao. 13 February 2008. http://www.mingpaonews.com/20080213/mra.htm. Retrieved 13 February 2008.
- ^ Cap 390 s21: Prohibition on publishing obscene articles. Hong Kong Government. 7 July 2000. http://www.legislation.gov.hk/blis_ind.nsf/fb2d3fd8a4e2a3264825647c0030a9e1/79907874e5816c32c825648300294683?OpenDocument
- ^ "Celebrity Sex Scandal". CNN. 5 February 2008. http://edition.cnn.com/video/#/video/world/2008/02/05/lustout.hong.kong.sex.photos.cnn. Retrieved 11 February 2008.
- ^ Fowler, Geoffrey; Jonathan Cheng (15 February 2008). "'Sexy Photo Gate' Mesmerizes Hong Kong, China and Sparks Police Crackdown, Backlash". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120308887950171619.html. Retrieved 16 February 2008.
- ^ Joseph Sternberg (19 February 2008). "PhotoGate". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB120337261318675199.html. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
- ^ "Cities Guide Hong Kong – News this month – X-Rated". The Economist. http://www.economist.com/cities/briefing.cfm?city_id=HK. Retrieved 23 February 2008. [dead link]
- ^ "Sex scandal rocks Hong Kong". MSNBC. 14 February 2008. http://worldblog.msnbc.msn.com/archive/2008/02/14/665099.aspx. Retrieved 15 February 2008.
- ^ "China arrests over HK sex scandal". BBC News. 20 February 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7254858.stm. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
- ^ Watts, Jonathan (13 February 2008). "China riveted by stolen sex photos of Hong Kong stars". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/feb/13/china.news. Retrieved 15 February 2008.
- ^ "Un scandale ébranle le cinéma de Hongkong". Le Monde. 19 February 2008. http://www.lemonde.fr/cinema/article/2008/02/19/un-scandale-ebranle-le-cinema-de-hongkong_1013196_3476.html. Retrieved 20 February 2008.
- ^ "Chinas nackte Superstars". Spiegel Online. 27 February 2008. http://www.spiegel.de/panorama/0,1518,537919,00.html. Retrieved 27 February 2008.
- ^ "Net users protest at police action". South China Morning Post. 10 February 2008. http://www.scmp.com/portal/site/SCMP/menuitem.2af62ecb329d3d7733492d9253a0a0a0/?vgnextoid=f1c30f1383308110VgnVCM100000360a0a0aRCRD&ss=Hong+Kong&s=News. (non-free source)
- ^ "Tycoon's niece target of latest nude photos". South China Morning Post. 9 February 2008. http://www.scmp.com/portal/site/SCMP/menuitem.2af62ecb329d3d7733492d9253a0a0a0/?vgnextoid=09fbca4a72ff7110VgnVCM100000360a0a0aRCRD&ss=Hong+Kong&s=News. Retrieved 9 February 2008.
- ^ Damon Pang (11 February 2008). "Internet sex pix saga picks up steam". The Standard. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=12&art_id=61320&sid=17539319&con_type=3&d_str=20080211&sear_year=2008.
- ^ a b 500 "Netizens march to protest at injustices; shout demands to pursue Edison Chen (500 網民遊行 責警執法不公;高呼捉拿陳冠希)" (in Traditional Chinese). Apple Daily. 11 February 2008. http://appledaily.atnext.com/template/apple/art_main.cfm?iss_id=20080211&sec_id=4104&subsec_id=11866&art_id=10737393 500. Retrieved 11 February 2008.
- ^ "Truck hits chief inspector's car, toll booth". The Standard. 27 December 2007. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?we_cat=4&art_id=59202&sid=16887802&con_type=1&d_str=20071227&fc=7. Retrieved 11 February 2008.
- ^ "超速64公里變29公里 政府放生林建岳" (in Traditional Chinese). Apple Daily. 9 February 2008. http://www.appleactionews.com/site/art_main.cfm?iss_id=20080112&sec_id=6996647. Retrieved 9 February 2008.
- ^ "Police attacked over bungled arrest". South China Morning Post (print edition): p. C1. 16 February 2008.
- ^ "Edison Chen Dumped From Movie". batgwa.com. 5 February 2008. http://batgwa.com/story.php?id=577. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
- ^ "Edison Chen Dumped By Credit Card Company". batgwa.com. 10 February 2008. http://batgwa.com/story.php?id=595. Retrieved 10 February 2008.
- ^ Mark Magnier (27 February 2008). "Hong Kong ogles, blushes". LA Times. Archived from the original on 1 March 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080301204339/http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/asection/la-fg-hksex27feb27,1,6641296.story. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
- ^ "Edison Legislators and public viciously criticise waste of police manpower (議員市民狠批浪費警力)" (in Traditional Chinese). Apple Daily. 22 February 2008. http://www1.appledaily.atnext.com/template/apple/art_main.cfm?iss_id=20080222&sec_id=4104&art_id=10782127. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
- ^ "Edison Reward: $91,000 for Edison's hand". Asiaone. 19 February 2008. http://www.asiaone.com/News/Latest%2BNews/Showbiz/Story/A1Story20080219-50425.html. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- ^ "Edison "$100,000 offered for sex scandal star's hand". Ninemsn. 19 February 2008. http://news.ninemsn.com.au/article.aspx?id=382590. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- ^ Cable TV Hong Kong 香港有線電視. Entertainment news 02-06-2008.
- ^ "Disney retreats. Gillian may resume by redesigning image. (遭迪士尼撤宣傳 料重塑形象復出)" (in Traditional Chinese). hk.news.yahoo.com. 10 February 2008. http://hk.news.yahoo.com/080209/12/2okx8.html. Retrieved 10 February 2008.
- ^ ""Twins concert postponed for 5 months" (Twins演唱會 押後五個月)" (in Traditional Chinese). Sina.com. 14 February 2008. http://news.sina.com.hk/cgi-bin/nw/show.cgi/2/1/1/638043/1.html. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
- ^ "Avalanche of complaints against Twins star". South China Morning Post. 18 February 2008. http://www.scmp.com/portal/site/SCMP/menuitem.2af62ecb329d3d7733492d9253a0a0a0/?vgnextoid=fae7dca81bc28110VgnVCM100000360a0a0aRCRD&ss=Hong+Kong&s=News. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
- ^ "BA declines to handle pop star complaints". Radio Television Hong Kong. 21 February 2008. http://www.rthk.org.hk/rthk/news/englishnews/news.htm?englishnews&20080221&56&469887. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- ^ "Stars linked to nude photos shut out of Games opening ceremony". South China Morning Post: p. C1. 26 February 2008.
- ^ Clara Mak (5 July 2008). Twins will reunite, says Choi. South China Morning Post.
- ^ TVB Be My Guest (志雲飯局) 7 March 2009 episode.
- ^ a b Sina.com.hk. "Sina.com." 阿嬌﹕去年開記招免連累阿Sa. Retrieved on 9 March 2009.
- ^ Mingpao.com. "Mingpao." 阿嬌南昌復出口窒窒. Retrieved on 9 March 2009.
- ^ Vivienne Chow & Martin Wong (28 February 2008). "Stars offer HK$25 million over sex photos". South China Morning Post: p. C3.
- ^ a b "Taiwan ese Divas Make a Move: Jolin Tsai & Elva Hsiao post TWD200M reward in challenge to Kira (台灣天后出招 -蔡依林、蕭亞軒懸紅二億挑戰奇拿)". Apple Daily. 27 February 2008. http://www1.appledaily.atnext.com//template/apple/art_main.cfm?iss_id=20080227&sec_id=4104&subsec_id=11866&art_id=10800628. Retrieved 27 February 2008.
- ^ 蕭亞軒蔡依林與陳冠希劃清界線豪擲1億保清譽_新聞頁_中國新聞_北美新浪網
- ^ Nickkita Lau (19 February 2008). "Govt acts on sex pics". The Standard. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=30&art_id=61750&sid=17661261&con_type=1&d_str=20080219&sear_year=2008.
- ^ "Mags in the clear over nude pics". The Standard. 21 February 2008. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=11&art_id=61867&sid=17694181&con_type=1&d_str=20080221&sear_year=2008. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
- ^ South China Morning Post: p. C1. 21 February 2008.
- ^ a b "Baidu asked to apologize for spreading HK singer's pornographic photos". Xinhua. 19 February 2008. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-02/19/content_7631572.htm. Retrieved 19 February 2008.
- ^ "BNNC Asks Baidu To Apologize For Nude Pictures". Chinatechnews. 19 February 2008. http://www.chinatechnews.com/2008/02/19/6403-bnnc-asks-baidu-to-apologize-for-nude-pictures. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
- ^ "Chen to testify in camera". The Standard. 24 February 2009. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=21&art_id=78647&sid=22842870&con_type=1&d_str=20090224&sear_year=2009.
- ^ Yvonne Tsui & Petti Fong (19 February 2009). "Canada hearing for Edison Chen case criticised". South China Morning Post: p. A1.
- ^ a b Robert Matas (24 February 2009). "Film star had deleted sex photos from computer, court told". The Globe and Mail. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ArticleNews/freeheadlines/LAC/20090224/BCCHEN24/national/National.
- ^ a b Lydia Chen (25 February 2009). "Chen speaks out in sex-pix case". http://www.shanghaidaily.com/sp/article/2009/200902/20090225/article_392234.htm.
- ^ Hong Kong actress in sex scandal speaks out, IOL news, 28 February 2009
- ^ South China Morning Post. "SCMP." iCable interview with Cecilia Cheung pulled. Retrieved on 4 March 2009.
- ^ South China Morning Post. "SCMP." Where's my apology, cries Gillian Chung. Retrieved on 4 March 2009.
- ^ Mak, Clara (2 August 2009). "Back to business". South China Morning Post: p. 2.
- ^ South China Morning Post. "SCMP." I thought about committing suicide. Retrieved on 4 March 2009.
- ^ a b c "Bullet death threat aimed at Chen". The Standard. 13 March 2009. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=30&art_id=79431&sid=23068912&con_type=3&d_str=20090312&sear_year=2009.
- ^ a b "Edison Chen to visit Singapore despite threats". South China Morning Post. 13 March 2009. http://www.scmp.com/portal/site/SCMP/menuitem.2af62ecb329d3d7733492d9253a0a0a0/?vgnextoid=ca44f4325caff110VgnVCM100000360a0a0aRCRD&s=news.
- ^ "Police examine letter threat against Edison Chen". Chinadaily.com.. 13 March 2009. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/hkedition/2009-03/12/content_7570096.htm.
- ^ Mingpao.com. "林建岳﹕陳冠希罪不至死「子彈恐嚇」開玩笑", Mingpao.com, Retrieved on 13 March 2009.
- ^ Lee, Diana (14 May 2009). "`Killer' on loose as techie jailed for Edison pics". The Standard.
Wikipedia Edison Chen's Photo Scandal
Bobo Chan - http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_
zoxyVVD_piA/Sansmp87f3I/ AAAAAAAABPI/9jWf27d7aBk/s1600- h/006.jpg ,
zoxyVVD_piA/SanuGvrZz0I/ AAAAAAAABTI/M4Ict4Fs9bM/s1600- h/038.jpg ,
blogspot.com/search/label/All% 20440%20Photos%20of% 20Hongkong%20Movie%20Stars% 20Scandal
blogspot.com/search/label/ Hongkong%20Office%20Sex% 20Scandal
blogspot.com/2009/09/tony- leung-in-nude-with-tang-wei- in.html
video.blogspot.com/ , http://logavideo.blogspot.com/ ,
edison/ , http://nomoreedc.wordpress. com/ , http://edison-chen-video- gallery.blogspot.com/ ,
taxonomy/term/246 , http://hongkongscandals. blogspot.com/ , http://hkmoviestars.blogspot. com/ ,
blogspot.com/?zx= 392f0fdf915fd9cb , http://gutteruncensored1. blogspot.com/?zx= 132fbcc31221632c ,
blogspot.com/?zx= 5283a026ea134720 , http://scandal-base.blogspot. com/2011/02/edision-chan- scandal-collections-bobo.html? zx=e2cdac406d48460 ,
com/ , http://allyssa-kwan-yin-yi. blogspot.com/ , http://scandal-base.blogspot. com/2011/02/edision-chan- scandal-collections-bobo.html ,